Prof. Stéphanie Laulhé Shaelou
HEAD OF LAW SCHOOL AND PROFESSOR OF EUROPEAN LAW AND REFORM
+357 24 69 4008
PhD in Law (University of Leicester, 2008)
LL.M. in European and International Trade Law (University of Leicester, 1997)
Maîtrise de Droit Privé (First Class LLB, 4 years) (University of Paris, 1996)
BA in Linguistics, International Legal Section (4 years) (Institut Supérieur d’Interprétation et de Traduction, Institut Catholique de Paris, 1996).
PGCert of Learning and Teaching in Higher Education (University of Central Lancashire, 2015)
Certified Mediator, Cyprus Chamber of Commerce (2017)
PECB Certified Data Protection Officer (GDPR) (2018)
Professor, University of Central Lancashire, Cyprus (July 2017 – to date)
Associate Professor, University of Central Lancashire, Cyprus (September 2015 – June 2017)
Assistant Professor, University of Central Lancashire, Cyprus (September 2012 – August 2015)
Senior Research Fellow, University of Central Lancashire, UK (September 2013 – January 2016)
Assistant Professor, University of Nicosia (February 2002 – August 2012)
Adjunct Faculty, Law Department, University of Cyprus (January – April 2009)
Legal Consultant, Andreas Neocleous & Co (October 1997 – January 2002)
Memberships (Academic/Professional) (selective)
- Higher Education Academy, UK (Fellow) (current)
- European Law Institute, Brussels (Fellow) (current)
- The University Association for Contemporary European Studies, UK (current)
- Society of Legal Scholars, UK (member) (current)
- Academic Network on the European Social Charter and Social Rights (current)
Professional Organisations/Associations/Non-profit organisations
- Interdisciplinary Centre for Law, Alternative and Innovative Methods (ICLAIM) (Founding member and Director)
- Cyprus Association for the European Law (branch of FiDE, International Federation for European Law) (Board Member) (current)
- Investment Migration Council (IMC), Geneva (member) (current)
- Cyprus Chapter of the Centre Européen d’Arbitrage et de Médiation (Founding and Board member)
- I.M.A.C.C. Investment Migration Association (Cyprus) (Founding member and Director)
- Cyprus Chamber of Commerce (KEBE)
- Cyprus Mediation Association pending
Collaborative Networks (current) Title
- Economic Crime and Cooperation Division (ECCD),
Council of Europe (July 2018-) Legal Expert
- Network of Constitutional Experts (ERC grant; 2014-17) National Expert
- Network of National Experts (EEA funded project; 2015-20) National Reporter
- EU/EMU withdrawal; EU economic and financial governance in times of crisis; BREXIT implications;
- Socio-economic rights in times of crisis;
- EU Internal Market Law ; Free Movement; EU external relations;
- Fundamental rights/freedoms in International and EU Law;
- EU and national Constitutional Law; application of EU law in Cyprus; constitutional rights;
- EU citizenship, free movement of persons and the scope of EU law in Cyprus and beyond;
- The uniformisation of European Private Law; conflict of laws in Cyprus; international trade and economic law in Cyprus.
Roles and Responsibilities (including past roles and responsibilities)
Teaching and Course Leadership (selective)
- Course Leader: Master of Laws (LLM) (2015 – 2018)
- Course Leader: Master of Arts (MA) in Security and Diplomacy Studies (2016 – to date)
- Module leader on the LLB (2014-16): EU Law; EU Business Law
- Module leader on the LLM (2014-16): EU Constitutional Law and Governance; EU Business Law; Advanced Legal Systems; EU Economic and Financial Governance;
- Module leader on the LLM (2013-2017): Advanced Legal Research; LLM Dissertation
- Module coordinator on the LLB with multiple tutors for Cyprus law modules (2013-2015)
- UCLan Cyprus, University level:
- Member of Senate;
- Chair of Research Sub-committee of Research and Innovation Committee (RIC);
- Chair of ASQAC (Quality assurance committee);
- Lead of the Research, Innovation and Enterprise Mentoring Team (2015-17);
- Member of Teaching and Learning enhancement initiative, School Lead (2014-2016);
- Erasmus Committee Member (2015 – 2018)
- UCLan, UK:
- Member of University ASQAC;
- Member of Faculty RIC;
- Lancashire Law School Research Executive Group (REG);
- UCLan Cyprus, School of Law:
- Chair of the LLM Dissertation Committee;
- Chair of Staff-Student Liaison Committee;
- Chair of School Council.
Books (internationally published, peer reviewed)
- S. Laulhé Shaelou, The EU and Cyprus: principles and strategies of full integration (vol. 3, Studies in EU External Relations, Brill/Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Leiden, 2010) (ISBN 978-90-04-17619-5) (400 pages;150,000 words)
- A. Emilianides, S. Laulhé Shaelou, A. Solomou, International Encyclopedia of Private International Law – Cyprus (Kluwer Law International, 2015) (50,000 words)
Chapters in Books (internationally published, edited)
- S. Laulhé Shaelou and K. Kalaitzaki, ‘The effectiveness and application of EU Law by national courts: towards an internalisation of EU Law in Cyprus’ in C. Franklin, The effectiveness and application of EU and EEA Law in national courts (Intersentia, 2018) (forthcoming)
- C. Kombos and S. Laulhé Shaelou, ‘The Cypriot Constitution under the Impact of EU law: An Asymmetrical Formation’ in A. Albi and Bardutzky, S. (eds), National constitutions in European and global governance: democracy, rights and the rule of law (TMC Asser Press, 2018) (29,000 words) (in print)
- S. Laulhé Shaelou and K. Kalaitzaki, ‘The application of the EU Charter in Cyprus’ in L. Burgorgue-Larsen, The EU Charter of Fundamental Rights seized by the national judges/La Charte des Droits Fondamentaux de l’Union Europénne saisie par les judges en Europe (Pedone, 2017) 211-260 (bilingual) (20,000 words)
- P. Athanassiou and S. Laulhé Shaelou, ‘EU Citizenship and its relevance to EU exit and secession’ in D. Kochenov (ed.), EU Citizenship and Federalism: the role of rights (Cambridge University Press, 2017) 731-50 (10,000 words)
- S. Laulhé Shaelou, ‘On the edge of good neighbourliness in EU law: lessons from Cyprus’ in D. Kochenov & E. Basheska (eds.), The principle of good neighbourly relations in the European legal context (Brill/Martinus Nijhoff, 2015) (184-213; 14,000 words)
- S. Laulhé Shaelou, ‘« Nous les peuples ». L’identité constitutionnelle dans les nouveaux états membres de l’Union européenne après Lisbonne’ in L. Burgogue-Larsen (ed.), L’identité constitutionnelle saisie par les juges en Europe (Pedone, Paris, 2011) (pp. 133-152 ; 10,000 words)
- S. Laulhé Shaelou, ‘The principle of territorial exclusion in the EU: SBAs in Cyprus – a special case of sui generis territories in the EU’ in D. Kochenov (ed.), EU Law of the Overseas: Outermost Regions, Associated Overseas Countries and Territories, Territories Sui Generis (Kluwer Law International, The Netherlands, 2011) (pp.153-175;15,000 words)
- S. Laulhé Shaelou, ‘Back to reality’: the implications of EU membership in the constitutional legal order of Cyprus’ in A. Lazowski, (ed.)Brave new world: application of EU law in the new member states (T.M.C. Asser Press, The Hague,2010) (pp.471-502;17,000 words)
- S. Laulhé Shaelou and A. Karatzia, ‘Some preliminary thoughts on the Cyprus bail-in litigation: A commentary on Mallis and Ledra’ (2018) 43 (2) European Law Review 249
- P. Athanassiou and S. Laulhé Shaelou, ‘EU accession from within? An introduction’ (2014) 33(1) Yearbook of European Law 335-384 (OUP) (pp. 335-384; 28,000 words)
- S. Laulhé Shaelou, ‘EU governance, markets and the economic and financial crisis’, (2012) 5(4) International Journal of Private Law 373 (Inderscience) (pp.373-389; 10,000 words)
- S. Laulhé Shaelou, ‘Market Freedoms, EU fundamental rights and public order: views from Cyprus’, (2011) 30(1) Yearbook of European Law298 (OUP) (pp. 298-357; 35,000 words)
- S. Laulhé Shaelou, ‘The European Court of Justice and the Anastasiou saga: principlesof Europeanisation through economic governance’ (2007) 18(3) European Business Law Review619 (Kluwer Law International) (pp.619-639; 10,000 words)
- S. Laulhé Shaelou, book review of D. Kochenov & F. Amtenbrink (eds.), The EU’s shaping of the international legal order (Cambridge University Press, 2014) (2015) 34(1) Yearbook of European Law 379 (OUP) http://yel.oxfordjournals.org/content/current#BookReviews
- S. Laulhé Shaelou, book review of N. Skoutaris, The Cyprus issue. The four freedoms in a member state under siege (Hart, 2011), (2011) 48(6) Common Market Law Review 2117 (Kluwer Law International)
- S. Laulhé Shaelou, book review of A. Sepos, The Europeanisation of Cyprus (Palgrave, 2009), (2012) Cyprus Yearbook of International Law171
- S. Laulhé Shaelou, book review of P. Van Elsuwege, From Soviet Republics to EU Member States: a Legal and Political Assessment of the Baltic States’ Accession to the EU (SEUR, vol 2, Brill/Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2008), (10/2009) Cyprus and European Law Review 843
- S. Laulhé Shaelou, book review of K. Agapiou-Josephides and J. Rossetto, Chypre dans l’Union européenne (Bruylant, Belgium 2006) (2007) 44 Common Market Law Review1202
P. Athanassiou and S. Laulhé Shaelou, The ‘internal’ enlargement of the EU – is it possible? http://blog.oup.com/2014/05/internal-enlargement-of-european-union-legal-possibility/
S. Laulhé Shaelou and P. Athanassiou, ‘Cyprus Report’ in G. Bàndi et al, European Banking Union (FiDE Congress Proceedings, Vol. 1, Wolters Kluwer, 2016) 269-297
https://inbusinessnews.reporter.com.cy/opinions/article/191248/enallaktiki-epilysi-astikon-diaforon-stin-kypriaki-dimokratia (in Greek, with Dr. Nevi Agapiou)
Selective Conference and Seminar Presentations
Invited Speaker/Key note speeches
- ‘Some fundamental rights challenges in Smart Information Systems through key technical drivers: Big Data and AI under SHERPA’, Public workshop, Journalist House, Brussels, 4 May 2018
- ‘EU citizenship and EU withdrawal’, paper presented at the conference entitled ‘EU Citizenship, Federalism and Rights’ held at the Court of Justice of the European Union/University of Luxembourg, 17-18 November 2017
- ‘A Critical Look at the Cypriot Citizenship by Investment Programme’, paper delivered at the 2nd Annual Academic Investment Migration Seminar: The state of the investment migration field’, organized by the Investment Migration Council, SOAS and the University of Groningen, 5 June 2017, Geneva
- ‘Selling or renting citizenship? The case of the Cypriot investment citizenship programme’, paper delivered at a Conference entitled ‘Investment migration: making sense of the trend’ organised by the Investment Migration Council, the Graduate Institute Geneva, the Global Migration Centre and the University of Groningen, 5 June 2016, Geneva
- ‘Europeanisation as legal integration? Ten years after the Big Bang enlargement’, key note speech delivered at a conference entitled ‘New perspectives in European Studies: Europeanisation in the EU and the Neighbourhood’ at the Queen’s University Belfast, Faculty of Political Sciences, 6-7 March 2015‘
- Legitimate expectations, property rights and proportionality in the Cypriot sugar market cases’, paper delivered at a work in progress ERC seminar entitled ‘Assessing the EU’s responsiveness to constitutional rights: data retention, arrest warrants and beyond’, University of Kent, UK, 28-29 August 2014
- ‘EU Citizenship and State secession’, paper delivered at a conference entitled ‘The right to have what rights? EU Citizenship’s role reconsidered’ held at the University of Oslo, Norway, 13-14 September 2013
- ‘The EU in crisis : myths and realities’, paper delivered at a seminar entitled ‘Cyprus in the eye of the storm : legal implications of the economic and financial crisis’ organised jointly by the Law School of UCLan Cyprus, the international law department of MGIMO University, Moscow, and Vassiliades & Co LLC, held at UCLan Cyprus, 27 June 2013
- ‘The outer-limits of the principle of good neighbourliness in EU law’, paper delivered at a conference entitled ‘The principle of good neighbourly relations in Europe: theory and practice’ held at the University of Groningen, The Netherlands, 8 March 2013
- ‘L’identité constitutionnelle dans la jurisprudence constitutionnelle des nouveaux pays membres de l’Union européenne’, speech delivered at a conference on the topic of the judicial perception of national identity in Europe at the Université Panthéon-Sorbonne, Paris, Centre for Research on International and European Law, La Sorbonne, Paris,3December 2010
Papers/Panels presented for conferences, symposiums and seminars
- ‘Designing democracies in post-conflict societies – Historical and legal perspectives’ (Panel I) and ‘Designing democracies in post-conflict societies – Theoretical and empirical aspects’ (Panel II), panels presented at the International Political Science Association (IPSA) colloquium RC14, RC28, RC13: Democratisation and constitutional design in divided societies, University of Cyprus, 24-7 June 2017 (panel organisation, chairman and/or discussant).
- ‘Access of citizens to justice and effective judicial protection in Europe’, pre-organised panels presented at the UACES annual Conference in Cork, Ireland, 1-3 September 2014 (see http://www.uaces.org/events/conferences/cork/) (panel organisation, chairman and/or discussant).
- ‘Withdrawal from the EU and/or from the EMU – current considerations’, pre-organised panel presented at the UACES 2013 annual conference held at the University of Leeds on 1-4 September 2013 (see http://uaces.org/events/conferences/leeds/) (panel organisation, chairman and/or discussant).
- ‘The development of economic governance in the EU in the context of the global financial downturn: in search for a legal basis?’, paper presented at the 8th International Workshop for Young Scholars (WISH) bilingual conference held at the ESSCA Graduate School of Management, Angers, France,26-7 February 2010.
- ‘The ‘re-institutionalisation’ of the principle of territorial exclusion in the EU: the case of the SBAs in Cyprus’, paper presented at a conference “On bits of Europe everywhere: overseas possessions of the EU member states in the legal-political context of European law” held at the University of Groningen, 14-15 December 2009.
CONFERENCE/LECTURE/SEMINAR ORGANISATION AND INTRODUCTORY SESSIONS, CHAIRING, DISCUSSANT
- Round Table of experts, ‘Promoting and protecting socio-economic rights in times of crisis in Europe’, with Hon. Dr. Akis Hadjihambis (former President, Supreme Court of Cyprus), Hon. Judge Anna Marcoulli (General Court of the European Union), and Hon. Judge Georgios Serghides (European Court of Human Rights), Cleopatra hotel, 2 March 2018
- Symposium on ‘The modern challenges of shipping in Cyprus. Focus on the legal framework, financing and dispute resolution’ (December 2017) (120 guests and 350 viewers through live streaming)
- ‘The Sustainability of socio-economic rights in times of crisis’,Jean Monnet Module Closing Academic Conference and Open Forum, 3-4 July 2017, UCLan Cyprus
- ‘The UK and the EU after Brexit’, Public Lecture by Professor Sir Christopher Pissarides, Nobel Prize winner in Economics, 2010 (see https://www.uclancyprus.ac.cy/the-uk-and-eu-after-brexit-a-public-lecture-by-professor-sir-christopher-pissarides/ and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zMZ39LQ-oM4)
- Jean Monnet Module (JMM) Research Workshop for PhD students entitled ‘Future trends in interdisciplinary research’, 30 June 2016, UCLan Cyprus.
- Introductory session, Discussant at a staff seminar organised by the legal department at the Central Bank of Cyprus for the JMM/School of Law research scholars.
- JMM Round Tables held on 26 June 2015 at the EU House, Nicosia.
- JMM Guest Lecture No. 6 by Mr. George Arestis, former Judge at the CJEU (2004-2014) and Honorary fellow, School of Law, UCLan Cyprus entitled ‘EU Citizenship and social rights’, held on 15 December 2016, UCLan Cyprus.
- JMM Guest Lecture No. 5 by Prof. Achilles Emilianides, advocate, entitled ‘The Legal bail-in in Cyprus. A legal appraisal’, held on 17 November 2016, UCLan Cyprus.
- JMM Guest lecture No. 4 by Dr. Constantinos Lycourgos, Judge at the CJEU, entitled ‘Measures taken in order to tackle the euro crisis and the case law of the EU Courts’, held on 12 February 2016 at the Cleopatra Hotel.
- JMM Guest Lecture No. 3 by Mr. George Arestis, former Judge at the CJEU (2004-2014) and Honorary fellow, School of Law, UCLan Cyprus entitled ‘EU Citizenship and social rights’, held on 29 October 2015, UCLan Cyprus.
- JMM Guest Lecture No. 2 by Prof. Jukka Snell, University of Turku, Finland, entitled ‘The Trilemma of European Economic and Monetary Integration, and Its Implications’, held on 3 December 2014 at the Cleopatra Hotel, Nicosia.
- JMM Guest Lecture No. 1 by Dr. Constantinos Kombos, University of Cyprus, entitled ‘The Financial crisis as a constitutional crisis’, held on 12 November 2014 at UCLan Cyprus.
- Seminar and book launch: ‘Integration and Differentiation in the EU. A legal approach’ held at the EU House,24June 2010.
Selective Research Funding/ Grant Capture
Erasmus+ 2014-2020 Programme – Jean Monnet Activity – Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA)
Module Leader and Academic Coordinator of the Jean Monnet Module (replace link with: https://www.uclancyprus.ac.cy/research/jean-monnet-module/) entitled “The Law of Financial and Economic Governance in the EU”, School of Law, UCLan Cyprus, co-funded by the European Union
Aims and Objectives
FEcoGov consists of teaching, research and debating activities taking place in Cyprus in the field of EU financial and economic governance in times of crisis, run to the immediate benefit of the LLM/research students at the School of Law of UCLan Cyprus and in the rest of Europe, but also in the interest of professionals and the wider society through its various activities and its online platform open to the public.
JMM working programme – Summary of Activities:
- Specialised LLM teaching: EU Constitutional Law and Governance; EU Economic and Financial Governance; Law, Research and methodology seminars.
- PhD supervision in the area of the JMM (4 PhD students; one 1 completion in 2018 and one completion in 2019).
- Promotion of young scholars as JMM Research Assistant (1) / Researchers (2); publication of their research in JMMWP Series.
- Teaching and Debating activities with international experts:
- Guest lectures (Year 1, 2 and 3 of project)
- Round tables/Research Workshop (Year 1 and 2)
- Closing Academic Conference and Open Forum (Year 3)
European Commission, Horizon 2020
SwafS-22-2017 ‘The ethical dimensions of IT technologies: a European perspective focusing on security and human rights aspects’: ‘Shaping the ethical dimensions of smart information systems’ (SHERPA): large consortium bidding of 2.8 million euro. PI at the University of De Montfort, UK; I am the UCLan Cyprus coordinator (UCLan Cyprus share: 330K). Successful November 2017 (15/15).
Follow us on Twitter: @project_sherpa
Started in May 2018, in collaboration with a broad range of stakeholders across Europe, UCLan Cyprus is a partner in the SHERPA project, a Horizon 2020 project that will investigate, analyse and synthesise our understanding of the ways in which smart information systems (SIS; Smart Information Systems, the combination of artificial intelligence and big data analytics) impact on ethics and human rights issues.
The SHERPA consortium has 11 partners from six European countries (representing academia, industry, civil society, standards bodies, ethics committees, art). The competitive selection process, resulted with SHERPA as the single funded project out of more than 15 submissions, with a total of 15 out 15 marks for its overall excellence, impact and implementation potential.
The project plans to develop novel ways of understanding SIS challenges, evaluate with stakeholders, and advocate the most desirable and sustainable solutions including technical and regulatory options (e.g., terms of reference for a regulator), as well as promote and implement the most promising solutions through targeted dissemination and communication activities.
The UCLan Cyprus team will be responsible for legal analysis, stakeholder interviews, quality assurance for the entire consortium, as well as validation of solutions and recommendations.
This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme Under Grant Agreement
Council of Europe
Call for Tenders 2017/AO/51 for the provision of consultancy services in the area of good governance, combating corruption, economic crime and terrorism, Council of Europe, Economic Crime and Cooperation Division (ECCD), Lot 2 (Anti-Money Laundering/Combatting the Financing of Terrorism). Successful May 2018. Framework Contract signed between UCLan Cyprus and the Council of Europe until 28 February 2019 (renewable annually until 28 February 2023). Selection of 5 legal, accounting, financial and cybersecurity experts from UCLan Cyprus including myself (as PI).
Evaluation work for the European Commission
Expert Contract CT-EX2012D130071-102, October 2017-December 2017, with the Research Executive Agency, H2020-MSCA-IF-2017 (Marie Sklodowska-Curie individual fellowships)
Expert Contracts no. CT-EX2012D130071-101, March 2017 and September 2017, with the Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency of the European Union
Supervision of Projects/PhDs
- LLM dissertations (30 to date): all aspects of EU law, international economic law
- Director of PhD Studies (3 to date):
- Ms Despina Christofi, 2014-17 (FT on scholarship), Arbitration and Financial crisis. Completed in January 2018.
- Ms Katerina Kalaitzaki, 2015-2018 (FT on scholarship), EU Citizenship and Financial crisis.
- Ms Eleni Neocleous, 2016-2019 (PT), Migration crisis and the responsibility of the EU.
- Ms Athina Charalambides, 2018-2023 (PT), Brexit and Citizenship.
Consultancy and CPD Training
Areas of expertise (selection):
- EU financial crisis instruments & related dispute resolution mechanisms
- The protection of socio-economic rights in the EU business environment
- Global migration and investment
- Legal issues arising from EU Citizenship, the EU Internal Market & the effects of Brexit
- The Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus under EU Law
- EU membership and EU withdrawal
Organisation of CPD training:
2018: various Anti-Money Laundering and Counter-Terrorist Financing Compliance courses/updates for professionals at intermediary-to-advanced level https://www.uclancyprus.ac.cy/school-of-law-uclan-cyprus-professional-course/ (July 2018) and https://www.uclancyprus.ac.cy/advanced-professional-course/ (May 2018). Press release here
2017: Anti-Money Laundering and Counter-Terrorist Financing Compliance course for professionalshttp://www.uclancyprus.ac.cy/en/courses/school-law/seminars-and-events/school-law-uclan-cyprus-professional-course-fundamentals-anti-money-laundering-and-counter-terrorist-financing-compliance/
Expert opinions on EU law and/or EU financial crisis law for large Cypriot and UK law firms (confidentiality agreements in place) (2002-2018)
Public consultation on the new ADR law in Cyprus for the protection of consumers transactions with businesses (March 2017)
Legal translation (French-English, English-French and Greek-French) for various professionals
Nominated for the Distinguished Researcher Award 2016, Cyprus Research Promotion
Other Scholarly and Outreach Activities (selective)
Research Associate, European Research Centre for Economic and Financial Governance (EURO-CEFG) of the Universities of Leiden, Delft and Rotterdam, the Netherlands (Dec 2017 – to date)
Associate Member, Centre for Research on International and European Law, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne, Paris (Oct 2014 – to date)
Editor of the Jean Monnet Module Working Paper Series (JMMWP), School of Law, UCLan Cyprus
Reviewer for the Common Market Law Review, the European Law Review, European Journal of Comparative Law and Governance,Yearbook of European Law
Advisory Board Member
Member of the Advisory Board for the Masters of Security and Strategic Studies at the American University in the Emirates (March 2017-), Dubai, UAE (upon invitation)
International Academic and Industry Advisory Board of Marine and Maritime Research, Innovation and Technology Centre of Excellence – MaRITeC-X (December 2017 – ) (upon invitation) http://www.maritec-x.eu/
Non-income generating Activities
- Student competitions in Cyprus and internationally;
- Professional networking and student engagement (Law Fairs, Rule of Law programme, lunchtime roundtables, research seminars, guest lecture series, public lectures, annual dinners, social events, internship programme, sponsorships, student-led projects, mentoring, field trips)
Income generating Activities
- Short and professional courses for students and externals (arbitration, mediation anti-money laundering, professional skills)
- ICLAIM (Interdisciplinary Centre for Law, Alternative and Innovative Methods): non-for-profit centre established in 2017 and aimed at promoting the dissemination and exploitation of law in the real world for the benefit of students, the legal profession and the community at large (consumers and EU citizens, services to vulnerable persons such as migrants, minors or women, facilitation of start-ups, etc).